FreeBSD is a very powerful operating system, it has a great history of reliability, security and stability. Here we show how it can be used to stake Qtum in a secure way.
FreeBSD jails are a very powerful feature, in summary, your jail instance is more protected as it's like having a separate OS just for Qtum with reduced privileges.
Here's a good read on Jails: https://www.freebsd.org/doc/handbook/jails.html
Important: Make sure to install and enable NTP, it's necesary to stay synchronized to network clocks.
Install FreeBSD as normal, however, the following hardening settings are recommended during install:
Create a user with permissions "operator wheel"
Please remember to do all these commands as root
Notice that we've added some settings for firewall, these will enable IPFW and basic settings to secure our Jail, allowing only ports 22(ssh) and 3888(Qtum) to be accessed.
zfs create -o mountpoint=/jail zroot/jail
(Change zroot for whatever name you chose for your zfs pool)
zfs create -o mountpoint=/jail/qtum zroot/jail/qtum
cd /jail/qtum/ && fetch -o - http://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/amd64/11.2-RELEASE/base.txz | tar --unlink -xpJf - -C /jail/qtum
Typing ls /jail/qtum/ should show the filesystem of our Qtum FreeBSD Jail
Now, let's create the jail configuration file:
host.hostname = qtum.local;
ip4.addr = 192.168.0.99;
interface = em0;
path = /jail/qtum;
exec.start = "/bin/sh /etc/rc";
exec.stop = "/bin/sh /etc/rc.shutdown";
Ok now it's time to launch our jail!
service jail start qtum
We've just started our Qtum jail, We can now get into our Qtum jail to finish configuration, install Qtum and launch the wallet.
jexec qtum /bin/csh
cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/YOURTIMEZONE/ /etc/localtime
This is very important, if the time info is incorrect, we'll produce orphan blocks or will be unable to sync
Create our basic /etc/rc.conf for our Qtum Jail
echo "nameserver 22.214.171.124" >> /etc/resolv.conf
echo "nameserver 126.96.36.199" >> /etc/resolv.conf
Now that we've got our jail up and running, we need to install Qtum. There's 2 options on doing this, we can use the pkg repository or the powerful FreeBSD ports which are usually updated faster:
pkg update -f
pkg install -y qtum
portsnap fetch extract
cd /usr/ports/net-p2p/qtum && make install clean
The above will ask for a lot of configuration options, it might be better to use make config-recursive to set all options before compiling.
If you want to use default settings just type
cd /usr/ports/net-p2p/qtum && make install clean BATCH="YES"
Launching Qtum is just like in any other *NIX operating system, however there's a minor difference here due to how FreeBSD jails work. First, we need to create a qtum.conf file with the following contents:
This config is necessary, otherwise calling the daemon will return errors.
Then we can launch with
- Set up firewall on host (you cannot setup a firewall inside a jail) and enable only the ports you need (22 and 3888) This is done in the host rc.conf at the top of this tutorial
- Disable history, this will completely disable console history and it's a way to help secure your staking box, type the following on your FreeBSD console:
unset history; unset savehist
- Disable password authentication
If using the FreeBSD box on your home network, force it to listen on local network only.